But no formal offer will be made until the EU agrees to begin talking about a new trade deal with the UK.
No new figure has been given – but it is thought it could be up to £40bn, which would be double what the UK’s offers so far add up to.
The UK and the EU have yet to agree on the so-called “divorce bill” with the UK due to leave the EU in March 2019.
Some Conservative MPs have reacted angrily to the possibility of the UK agreeing to pay more – yesterday one, Nigel Evans, said it would be like a “ransom payment” to the EU while another, Robert Halfon, said it would make voters “go bananas”.
But despite this, BBC assistant political editor Norman Smith said leading Brexiteers in Theresa May’s cabinet, like Boris Johnson and Michael Gove, had agreed to support her in paying a “much larger sum” – as long as the EU agrees to begin trade talks, which it has refused to do so far.
And no final figure will be agreed until a trade deal is agreed, he added.
How did we get here?
The UK voted to leave the EU in June 2016, and served the EU with formal notice of Brexit in March 2017. This began a two-year countdown to the UK’s departure day which will be in March 2019.
Before that the two sides have to agree all sorts of things – including what happens to EU citizens living in the UK and British people living in the EU, and how the Northern Ireland border will work.
So the two teams of negotiators have been meeting in Brussels every month.
But there has not been much of a breakthrough so far, with the “divorce bill” proving to be one of the key sticking points.
Part of the problem for Theresa May is that while the EU wants the UK to offer more money, some of her MPs say this would be unacceptable and that the UK should just walk away and leave.
EU leaders are due to decide at a summit on 14 and 15 December whether to allow talks on a future trade relationship to begin.
What ministers talked about
It was billed as a key meeting where Theresa May would try to get her ministers on side to support her in negotiating cash with the EU.
Downing Street has been tight-lipped about what was actually discussed at the Cabinet Exit and Trade (Strategy and Negotiations) sub-committee, chaired by Prime Minister Theresa May.
But the BBC understands ministers concluded there is the possibility that talks with the EU will move on to the next phase in December but “we are not going to move on our own”.
There were also tensions over the future role of the European Court of Justice.
Some believe the court will need to supervise the trading rules between the UK and EU during a period of transition after Britain leaves.
Chancellor Philip Hammond has floated the idea of a tribunal, similar to the arrangements in place in European Economic Area countries such as Norway, to settle any disputes.
But the EU may insist on a continued role for the European Court of Justice.
Why does the UK owe anything?
The EU says the UK needs to settle its accounts before it leaves. It says the UK has made financial commitments that have to be settled as part of an overall withdrawal agreement.
The UK accepts that it has some obligations. And it has promised not to leave any other country out of pocket in the current EU budget period from 2014-20.
But the devil is in the detail.
There are also issues like pensions for EU staff, and how the UK’s contribution to these is calculated for years to come, and the question of what happens to building projects – for instance in Spain – that had funding agreed by all EU members including the UK but which will only begin construction after the UK has left.
Large amounts of the EU’s budget are spent in two areas – agriculture and fisheries, and development of poorer areas.
Projects include business start-ups, roads and railways, education and health programmes and many others.
BBC contributed to this report.